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Conventional Mechanical Ventilation

Oxygenation Targets


  1. Semler. Oxygen-Saturation Targets for Critically Ill Adults Receiving Mechanical Ventilation. N Engl J Med 2022;epublished October 24th
  2. Gelissen. Effect of Low-Normal vs High-Normal Oxygenation Targets on Organ Dysfunction in Critically Ill Patients. A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2021;epublished August 31st
  3. Schjørring. Lower or Higher Oxygenation Targets for Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure (HOT-ICU). N Engl J Med 2021;epublished January 20th
  4. Barrot. Liberal or conservative oxygen therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (LOCO2). N Engl J Med 2020;​382:​999-1008
  5. The ICU-ROX Investigators. Conservative Oxygen Therapy during Mechanical Ventilation in the ICU. N Engl J Med 2020;382:989-998
  6. Girardis. Effect of Conservative vs Conventional Oxygen Therapy on Mortality Among Patients in an Intensive Care Unit. The Oxygen-ICU Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2016;316(15):1583-1589
  7. Panwar. Conservative versus liberal oxygenation targets for mechanically ventilated patients: a pilot multicenter randomized
    controlled trial (CLOSE). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2016;​193:​43-51

Post Cardiac Arrest

  1. Bernard. Effect of Lower vs Higher Oxygen Saturation Targets on Survival to Hospital Discharge Among Patients Resuscitated After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. The EXACT Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2022;epublished October 26th
  2. Kjaergaard. Blood-Pressure Targets in Comatose Survivors of Cardiac Arrest. N Engl J Med 2022;epublished August 27th


  1. Nielsen. Lower vs Higher Oxygenation Target and Days Alive Without Life Support in COVID-19. The HOT-COVID Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2024;epublished March 19th


  1. Mayhoff. Increased Long-Term Mortality After a High Perioperative Inspiratory Oxygen Fraction During Abdominal Surgery: Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial. Anesth Analg 2012.
  2. Meyhoff. Effect of High Perioperative Oxygen Fraction on Surgical Site Infection and Pulmonary Complications After Abdominal Surgery. The PROXI Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2009;302(14):1543-1550


  1. Peters. Conservative versus liberal oxygenation targets in critically ill children (Oxy-PICU): a UK multicentre, open, parallel-group, randomised clinical trial. Lancet 2023;epublished December 1st
  2. Maitland. Randomised controlled trial of oxygen therapy and high-flow nasal therapy in African children with pneumonia (COAST trial). Intensive Care Med 2021;47:566–576
  3. Cunningham. Oxygen saturation targets in infants with bronchiolitis (BIDS): a double-blind, randomised, equivalence trial. Lancet 2015;386(9998):1041–1048


Tidal Volume


  1. Villar. The ALIEN study: incidence and outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the era of lung protective ventilation. Intensive Care Med 2011; epub ahead of print.    (Erratum)
  2. Terragni. Tidal hyperinflation during low tidal volume ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007;175:160–166
  3. Villar. A high positive end-expiratory pressure, low tidal volume ventilatory strategy improves outcome in persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial (AIRES Study). Crit Care Med 2006; 34:1311-1318
  4. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Ventilation with Lower Tidal Volumes as Compared with Traditional Tidal Volumes for Acute Lung Injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:1301-1308
  5. Brower. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial comparing traditional versus reduced tidal volume ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Crit Care Med 1999;27:1492-1498
  6. Stewart. Evaluation of a ventilation strategy to prevent barotrauma in patients at high risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pressure- and Volume-Limited Ventilation Strategy Group. N Engl J Med 1998;338:355-361.
  7. Amato. Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:347-354.
  8. Brochard. Tidal volume reduction for prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Multicenter Trial Group on Tidal Volume Reduction in ARDS. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 158:1831-1838


  1. Writing Group for the PReVENT Investigators. Effect of a Low vs Intermediate Tidal Volume Strategy on Ventilator-Free Days in Intensive Care Unit Patients Without ARDSA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2018;epublished October 24th
  2. Determann. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with conventional tidal volumes for patients without acute lung injury: a preventive randomized controlled trial. Crit Care. 2010;14(1):R1


  1. Ferrando. Individualised, perioperative open-lung ventilation strategy during one-lung ventilation (iPROVE-OLV): a multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial. Lancet Respir Med 2023;epublished December 5th
  2. Writing Committee for the PROBESE Collaborative Group of the PROtective VEntilation Network (PROVEnet) for the Clinical Trial Network of the European Society of Anaesthesiology. Effect of Intraoperative High Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) With Recruitment Maneuvers vs Low PEEP on Postoperative Pulmonary Complications in Obese Patients. A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2019;epublished June 3rd
  3. Ferrando. Individualised perioperative open-lung approach versus standard protective ventilation in abdominal surgery (iPROVE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med 2018;epublished January 19th
  4. Futier. A Trial of Intraoperative Low-Tidal-Volume Ventilation in Abdominal Surgery (IMPROVE study). N Engl J Med 2013; 369:428-437

Conventional Mechanical Ventilation Adjuncts

Inhaled Pulmonary Vasodilator

Non-Conventional Mechanical Ventilation

High Flow Nasal Oxygen

Miscellaneous Conditions

ARDS Pharmacotherapy

last updated September 19th, 2022