The 491st Critical Care Reviews Newsletter, featuring the best critical care literature from the past 7 seven days, is now out.
The feature article is the COAST randomised controlled trial, investigating oxygen therapy and high-flow nasal therapy in African children with pneumonia. Other notable articles are the pilot REVERSE-AKI trial, examining restrictive fluid management in acute kidney injury; and a superb overview on the latest understanding on the pathophysiology and phenotypes of COVID-19.
Added May 9th
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The full set of edited videos from the eCritical Care Reviews Meeting 2021 are now available on the eCCR21 webpage. This includes 4 major trial results, a first-in-field phase II trial result, 16 of the best critical care trials & studies from 2020, 3 discussions on trial design, methodology and publishing, as well as the annual John Hinds Lecture. As always, these are free to view.
Added May 9th
We'll bring these important results to you live and free
The ACTIV4-a, ATTACC, & REMAP-CAP investigators will present the results of this multi-platform trial examining therapeutic & prophylactic anti- coagulation in patients with COVID-19. The interim analysis was released January 28th and is available via the link below.
Originally planned for CCR21, which became eCCR21, but delayed into the Spring, the long awaited results of the follow-up trial to the landmark targeted temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is out soon. Is the avoidance of fever the critical aspect of TTM? The results are due very soon.
This massive 11,000 patient trial from Brazil was also scheduled for CCR21, but was unavoidably delayed due to the pandemic. Comparing Plasma-Lyte 148 with 0.9% saline, it's almost ready for release now and we're delighted to be hosting this major trial result later this Spring.
In a Brazilian two-centre, blinded RCT in 240 patients with moderate or severe COVID-19, Murai and colleagues reported that a single oral dose of 200 000 IU vitamin D3 did not significantly change the median (IQR) length of hospitalisation; vitamin D3 group, 7.0 (4.0-10.0) days, vs. placebo group, 7.0 (5.0-13.0) days; log-rank, P = 0.59; unadjusted HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.82-1.39; P = 0.62.
JAMA 2021;epublished February 17th
In 668 patients with acute myocardial infarction and a hemoglobin level between 7 and 10 g/dL, a red cell transfusion threshold of ≤8 g/dL was found to be non-inferior to a threshold of ≤10 g/dL, with the composite MACE outcome (all-cause death, stroke, recurrent myocardial infarction, or emergency revascularization) at 30 days occurring in 11% vs 14%, respectively.
In 715 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and randomised to a protocol-guided strategy, using stroke volume variation to guide the administration of bolus fluids, or to usual care fluid administration, until desedation or up to 24 hours, there was no difference in the primary outcome of ICU length of stay; (median/IQR) intervention group; 27.9 hr (21.8–53.5 hr) vs control, 25.6 hr (21.9–64.6 hr); p = 0.95.
Crit Care Med 2021;epublished January 28th
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In 432 ventilated adults with sepsis, randomised to receive IV sedation with either dexmedetomidine (0.2 to 1.5 μg/kg/hr) or propofol (5 to 50 μg/kg/min), there was no difference between groups in the primary outcome of days alive without delirium or coma during the 14-day intervention period; 10.7 vs. 10.8 days; OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.26; respectively. There were also no differences in secondary outcomes, including mortality.
N Engl J Med 2021;epublished February 2nd
In adult patients suffering a traumatic brain injury, with a GCS score of 4 to 8, and initial ICP ≥ 25 mm Hg, the implementation of long-term mild hypothermia group (34–35 °C for 5 days), in comparison with normothermia group at 37 °C, did not improve the proportion with a favorable outcome (OR 1·55, 95%CI 0·91–2·64; P = 0·105) or mortality (P = 0·111) at 6 months.
EClinicalMedicine 2021;epublished January 28th
In a prospective study in 20 ICUs in 3 countries, amongst 631 patients who underwent continued monitoring after planned withdrawal of life-sustaining support, 14% of patients had a resumption of cardiac activity after a period of pulselessness. Just 1 percent were observed clinically. The longest period to resumption of cardaic activity was 4 minutes 20 seconds.
N Engl J Med 2021; 384:345-352 | January 28th, 2021
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In a Danish led, international, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial trial in 2928 adults with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, targetting a PaO2 of 8 kPa, in comparison with 12 kPa, did not improve the primary outcome of 90-day mortality (42.9% vs 42.4%; adjusted risk ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.11; P=0.64).
Presented at eCCR21. Video available at eCCR21 webpage
N Engl J Med 2021;epublished January 20th
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In a Brazilian randomised controlled trial involving 9 hospitals, the use of tocilizumab as a single intravenous infusion of 8 mg/kg plus standard care (n=65) versus standard care alone (n=64), resulted in suimilar levels of mechanical ventilation at day 15 (28% vs. 20; (odds ratio 1.54, 95% CI0.66 to 3.66; P=0.32).), respectively, and increased mortality (17% vs. 3%; odds ratio 6.42, 95% CI,1.59 to 43.2).
BMJ 2021;372:n84, published January 20th
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In a pre-print paper, the REMAP-CAP trial investigators have reported efficacy with interleukin 6 receptor anatgonists in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Hospital mortality was 28.0% (98/350) for tocilizumab, 22.2% (10/45) for sarilumab and 35.8% (142/397) for control.
Preprint January 7th
In 10,406 randomised patients, with 1873 reported deaths, there was no significant difference in the primary endpoint of 28-day mortality -18% convalescent plasma vs. 18% usual care alone; risk ratio 1.04 [95% confidence interval 0.95-1.14]; p=0.34.
Prof Peter Horby, Tweet, Jan 15th
Three large randomised controlled trials, ATTACC, @ACTIV4a, and REMAP-CAP, have, for futility, halted recruitment to their therapeutic anticoagulation arms in critically ill patients with COVID-19.
In this multi-centre, blinded Australian trial, 25 000 IU of nebulised heparin administered 6 hourly while invasively ventilated, did not significantly alter the primary outcome of functional outcomes (SF-36) at 60 days; survivors in the heparin group (n=97) mean 53·6 vs control 48·7; difference 4·9 [95% CI –4·8 to 14·5]; p=0·32).
In this trial PCT-guided antimicrobial treatment in sepsis was effective in reducing infection-associated adverse events like infections by multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridioides difficile, as well as in-hospital and 28-day mortality.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021;202(3):202–210
January 17th 2021
Lancet 2020;epublished December 21st
JAMA Intern Med 2020;epublished October 26th
In 1824 infants born prematurely between 22 and 26 weeks and weighing less than 1000 g, a higher hemoglobin threshold for red-cell transfusion did not improve survival without neurodevelopmental impairment at 22 to 26 months of age, corrected for prematurity
N Engl J Med 2020;383:2639-2651
Crit Care Med 2021;epublished January 28th
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