Major Studies on the

Pulmonary Artery Catheter


Original Description of Swan-Ganz Catheter

  1. Swan. Catheterization of the heart in man with use of a flow-directed balloon-tipped catheter. N Engl J Med 1970;282: 447-451  (abstract)

Underlying Principles

  1. Osman. Cardiac filling pressures are not appropriate to predict hemodynamic response to volume challenge. Crit Care Med 2007;35(1):64-68  (abstract)
  2. Kumar. Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure fail to predict ventricular filling volume, cardiac performance, or the response to volume infusion in normal subjects. Crit Care Med 2004;32(3):691-699  (abstract)


General ICU Use

  1. Harvey. Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of pulmonary artery catheters in management of patients in intensive care (PAC-Man): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006;366:472 - 477 (abstract)
  2. Shah. Impact of the Pulmonary Artery Catheter in Critically Ill Patients. Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA. 2005;294:1664-1670.
  3. Rhodes. A randomised, controlled trial of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2002;28:256–264                 (from Societie de Reanimation de Langue Francais)
  4. Connors. The effectiveness of right heart catheterization in the initial care of critically ill patients. JAMA 1996; 276: 889-97.(abstract)


  1. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network. Pulmonary-Artery versus Central Venous Catheter to Guide Treatment of Acute Lung Injury. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2213-24
  2. Richard. Early use of the pulmonary artery catheter and outcomes in patients with shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003; 290: 2713–2720

Congestive Heart Failure

  1. Binanay. Evaluation study of congestive heart failure and pulmonary artery catheterization effectiveness: the ESCAPE trial. JAMA. 2005;294(13):1625-33.


  1. Sandham. Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Use of Pulmonary-Artery Catheters in High-Risk Surgical Patients. N Engl J Med 2003;348:5-14.