November 4th 2012
Welcome to the 48th Critical Care Reviews Newsletter, bringing you the best critical care research published in the past week, plus a wide range of free full text review articles and guidelines from over 300 clinical and scientific journals.
This week's research studies continue to follow recent themes. In probably the only positive study of the year for artificial colloids, Van Der Linden and colleagues report a meta analysis showing modern tetrastarches appear to be safe when used intra-operatively. American clinicians seem to be more compliant with the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines, and have lower mortality, although whether this is the reason is unadressed. The numerous new acute kidney injury biomarkers under evaluation in the literature continue to be reported as not yet being ready for clinical practice.
There are guidelines on mechanical circulatory devices and rivaroxaban plus a position statement from the European Best Practice Group on the recent KDIGO guideline on acute kidney injury.
The review articles include papers on subarachnoid haemorrhage, open abdomen, clinical reasoning, an entire book on sepsis and, from two colleagues, an extremely comprehensive review of the perioperative management of the obese patient. Nonclinical papers include an article on how to write a medical paper and the potential use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system.
In light of the recent Chest and 6S studies, which identifyed clear signals of harm with hydroxyethyl starches in critically ill patients, Van Der Linden and colleagues undertook a systematic review and meta analysis to assess the safety of tetrastarches used during surgery. Fifty nine studies were included, totalling 4529 patients with 2139 patients treated with tetrastarch compared with 2390 patients treated with a comparator. Tetrastarches used during surgery were not associated with adverse renal effects as assessed by change or absolute concentrations of serum creatinine or need for renal replacement therapy (39 trials, 3389 patients), increased blood loss (38 trials, 3280 patients), allogeneic erythrocyte transfusion (20 trials, 2151 patients; odds ratio for HES transfusion 0.73 [95% confidence interval = 0.61–0.87], P = 0.0005), or increased mortality (odds ratio for HES mortality = 0.51 [0.24–1.05], P = 0.079).
Lancet Infectious Diseases: Surviving Sepsis Campaign
Levy and colleagues performed another analysis of the 25,375 patients in the Surviving Sepsis Campaign database to compare treatment and outcomes between European (n=6609, 26%) and American (n=18 766, 74%) patients with sepsis. Americans were typically admitted to ICU directly from the Emergency Department (n=12 218, 65·1%), while Europeans were more likely to come from the wards (3405, 51·5%), from where they would also have stayed 1 day longer (0.1 vs 1.0 days, difference 0.9, 95% CI 0.8—0.9). Although raw hospital mortality was higher in Europe than in the USA (41·1% vs 28·3%, difference 12·8, 95% CI 11·5—14·7), adjusted mortality was not (32·3% vs 31·3%, 1·0, −1·7 to 3·7, p=0·468). The median length of stay in ICU (7·8 vs 4·2 days, 3·6, 3·3—3·7) and hospital (22·8 vs 10·5 days, 12·3, 11·9—12·8) was longer in Europe than in the USA. Complete compliance with all applicable elements of the sepsis resuscitation bundle was higher in the USA than in Europe (21·6% vs 18·4%, 3·2, 2·2—4·4).
Abstract: Levy. Outcomes of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign in intensive care units in the USA and Europe: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2012; epublished ahead of print 26 October
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation: AKI Biomarkers
Vanmassenhove et al performed a review of all papers investigating the utility of acute kidney injury biomarkers in 5 clinical settings - paediatrics, cardiac surgery, emergency medicine, critically care and contrast-induced nephropathy. The biomarkers investigated were neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, Cystatin C, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-18, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, glutathione transferases and liver fatty acid binding protein. Of 87 relevant papers identified (74 studies), up to 27 different definitions of AKI were used. Reported diagnostic performance of the different biomarkers was variable from poor to excellent. As no consistent generalizable conclusions could be drawn on their diagnostic value, further research is required before they gain a place in routine clinical practice .
Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia: Central Venous Catheterization
In a prospective randomized controlled study in 80 patients undergoing right internal jugular vein catheterization using a landmark technique, Apiliogullari and colleagues compared the effectiveness of a 45 head turn versus a neutral head position on catheter insertion outcomes. The success rates of finder needle passes into the IJV on the first attempt were 87.5% and 37.5% (p < 0.05), and the cumulative success rates on the first 3 attempts were 97.5% and 57.5% in the rotated and neutral groups, respectively (p < 0.05). Carotid artery puncture occurred in 2 patients in the rotated group.
Abstract: Apiliogullari. Is a Neutral Head Position as Effective as Head Rotation During Landmark-Guided Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation? Results of a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Cardiothor Vasc Anesth 2012;(26)6:985-988
Circulation: Mechanical Circulatory Support
- Peura, Recommendations for the Use of Mechanical Circulatory Support: Device Strategies and Patient Selection: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation 2012 epublished Oct 29
Thrombosis and Haemostasis: Rivaroxaban
- Turpie. Management consensus guidance for the use of rivaroxaban – an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2012;108(5):876-886
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation: Acute Kidney Injury
- Fliser for the ad-hoc working group of ERBP. A European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) position statement on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guidelines on Acute Kidney Injury: Part 1: definitions, conservative management and contrast-induced nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant epublished ahead of print
Review - Clinical
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia: Obesity
- Cullen. Perioperative management of the severely obese patient: a selective pathophysiological review. CJA 2012;59(10):974-996
InTech.com: Subarachnoid Haemorrhage
- Patel. The Critical Care Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Aneurysm. Yasuo Murai (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0730-9, InTech 2012.
Blood Transfusion: Thrombotic Thrombocytopaenic Purpura
- Rizzo. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: a review of the literature in the light of our experience with plasma exchange. Blood Transfus 2012;10:521-32
International Wound Journal: Open Abdomen
Thrombosis and Haemostasis: Statins
- Antonopoulos. Translating the effects of statins: From redox regulation to suppression of vascular wall inflammation. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2012:108(5):840-848
Thrombosis and Haemostasis: Coagulation
- Geenen. Coagulation on endothelial cells: The underexposed part of Virchow’s Triad. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2012 108 5: 863-871
Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine: Contrast Nephropathy
- Sivalingam. Should N-acetylcysteine be used routinely to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury? Cleve Clin J Med 2012;79:746-749
Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Organ Transplantation
Acta Medica Lituanica: Acute Heart Failure
- Macas. Acute heart failure: vasoactive agents – does it matter? Acta Medica Lituanica 2012;19(3):215–219
- Bakšytė. Acute right ventricular failure. Acta Medica Lituanica Bakšytė. Acute right ventricular failure. Acta Medica Lituanica 2012;19(3):220–223
European Heart Journal: Heart Failure
- Jankowska. Iron deficiency and heart failure: diagnostic dilemmas and therapeutic perspectives. Eur Heart J epublished 25 October 2012
- Hernández Botero. The History of Sepsis from Ancient Egypt to the XIX Century.
- Mai. Experimental Sepsis Models.
- Azzopardi. Sepsis, the Liver and the Gut
- Ozer. Nerve Growth Factor and Sepsis
- Huang. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase in Sepsis
- Fernandez. Neural Reflex Control of Inflammation During Sepsis Syndromes
- Lausevic. Early Detection of Sepsis, MOF and Outcome Prediction in Severely Traumatized Patients
- Priya. Microdialysis Monitoring of Biomarkers for Early Recognition of Intestinal Ischemia
- Pérez. Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections in Critical Care
- Fairfax. Beware of Unusual Organisms Masquerading as Skin Contaminants
- Dreyer. Blood Culture Systems: From Patient to Result
- Finkelstein. Sepsis: Antimicrobial Therapy
- Chandran. Infections in Leukemia
- García-Miguel. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies in Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock
- Mullen. Induction Agents for Endotracheal Intubation in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock
- Xie. New Biomarkers for Sepsis
Critical Care & Resuscitation: Clinical Reasoning
- Gillon. Zebra in the intensive care unit: a metacognitive reflection on misdiagnosis. Crit Care Resusc 2012;14:216–221
Review - Basic Science
Chronicles of Young Scientists: Drug Delivery
Review - Non-Clinical
Indian Journal of Endocrinology: Medical Publishing
I hope you find these brief summaries and links useful.
Until next week